Kidney Transplant in india
When an individual’s kidneys fail, three treatment options are available: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation. Many patients feel that a successful kidney transplant provides a better quality of life because it allows greater freedom and often is associated with increased energy levels and a less restricted diet. In making a decision about whether this is the best treatment for you, you may find it helpful to talk to people who already have had a kidney transplant. You also need to speak to your doctor, nurse and family members.
A kidney transplant is a procedure performed to replace non-functioning kidneys with a healthy kidney from another person.
How the kidneys work ?
The kidneys have several important functions in the body :
- They filter wastes from your bloodstream and maintain the balance of electrolytes in your body.
- They remove chemical and drug by-products and toxins from your blood.
- They eliminate these substances and excess water as urine.
- They secrete hormones that regulate the absorption of calcium from your food (and thus bone strength), the production of red blood cells (thus preventing anemia), and the amount of fluid in your circulatory system (and thus blood pressure).
- When blood enters the kidneys, it is first filtered through structures called glomeruli. The second step is filtering through a series of tubules called nephrons.
- The tubules both remove unwanted substances and reabsorb useful substances back into the blood.
- Each of your kidneys contains several million nephrons, which cannot be restored if they are damaged.
- If kidney damage becomes too severe, your kidneys lose their ability to function normally. This is called kidney failure.
- Kidney failure can happen rapidly (acute kidney failure), usually in response to a severe acute (sudden, short-term) illness in another body system or in the kidneys. It is a very common complication in patients hospitalized for other reasons. It is often completely reversible with resolution of the underlying condition.
- Kidney failure can also happen very slowly and gradually (chronic kidney failure), usually in response to a chronic (ongoing, long-term) disease such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
- Both types of kidney failure can occur in response to primary kidney disease as well. In some cases this kidney disease is hereditary.
- Infections and substances such as drugs and toxins can permanently scar the kidneys and lead to their failure.
People with the following conditions are at greater-than-normal risk of developing kidney failure and end-stage renal disease:
- Diabetes (type 1 or type 2)
- High blood pressure – Especially if severe or uncontrolled
- Glomerular diseases – Conditions that damage the glomeruli, such as glomerulonephritis
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Sickle cell anemia
- Severe injury or burns
- Major surgery
- Heart disease or heart attack
- Liver disease or liver failure
- Vascular diseases – Conditions that block blood flow to different parts of your body, including progressive systemic sclerosis, renal artery thrombosis (blood clot), scleroderma
- Inherited kidney diseases – Polycystic kidney disease, congenital obstructive uropathy, cystinosis, prune belly syndrome
- Diseases affecting the tubules and other structures in the kidneys – Acquired obstructive nephropathy, acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis
- Taking antibiotics, cyclosporin, heroin, chemotherapy – Can cause inflammation of kidney structures
- Certain cancers – Incidental carcinoma, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, renal cell carcinoma, Wilms tumor
- HIV infection
- Vesicoureteral reflux – A urinary tract problem
- Past kidney transplant (graft failure)
- Rheumatoid arthritis
A small number of people who undergo transplantation for certain kidney disease experience a return of the original disease after the transplant.
- High blood cholesterol level
- Liver disease
- Weakening of the bones
- Hypertension (high blood pressure) – An ominous sign that the kidney is not functioning properly
- Swelling or puffiness – A sign of fluid retention, usually in the arms, legs, or face
- Decreased urine output
The most important complication that may occur after transplant is rejection of the kidney. The body’s immune system guards against attack by all foreign matter, such as bacteria. This defense system may recognize tissue transplanted from someone else as “foreign” and act to combat this “foreign invader.”
You will need to take medications every day to prevent rejection of your new kidney. Additional treatment may be needed if a rejection episode occurs. Regular checkups at your transplant center will ensure early detection and treatment of rejection.
Kidney transplants, like other treatments for kidney failure, often require following special diet guidelines. If you were on dialysis before, you may find this new diet less restricted. The length of time you must follow the special diet varies. Your progress will be followed closely, and your doctor and dietitian will change your diet as needed.