There are many types of Pediatric heart surgery.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation:
- Before birth, the baby has a blood vessel that runs between the aorta (the main artery to the body) and the pulmonary artery (the main artery to the lungs), called the ductus arteriosus. This opening usually closes shortly after birth when the baby starts to breathe on his/her own. If it does not close. It is called a patent ductus arteriosus. This could cause problems later in life
- In most cases, the doctor will close off the opening using medicine. If this does not work, then other techniques are used..
- Sometimes the PDA can be closed with a procedure that does not involve surgery. The procedure is most often done in a laboratory that uses x-rays. In this procedure, the surgeon makes a small cut in the groin. A wire is inserted into an artery in the leg and passed it up to the heart. Then, a small metal coil or another device is passed through the wire into the infant’s ductus arteriosus artery. The coil or other device blocks the blood flow, and this corrects the problem.
- Another method is to make a small surgical cut on the left side of the chest. The surgeon finds the PDA and then ties off or clips the ductus arteriosus, or divides and cuts it. Tying off the ductus arteriosus is called ligation. This procedure may be done in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair:
- The atrial septum is the wall between the left and right atria (upper chambers) of the heart. A hole in that wall is called an ASD. In the presence of this defect, blood with and without oxygen can be mixed up and over time cause medical problems and arrhythmias
- Sometimes, an ASD can be closed without open-heart surgery. First, the surgeon makes a tiny cut in the groin. Then the surgeon inserts a wire into a blood vessel that goes to the heart. Next, two small umbrella-shaped “clamshell” devices are placed on the right and left sides of the septum. These two devices are attached to each other. This closes the hole in the heart. Not all medical centers do this procedure.
- Open-heart surgery may also be done to repair ASD. In this operation, the septum can be closed using stitches. Another way to cover the hole is with a patch.
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair:
- The ventricular septum is the wall between the left and right ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. A hole in the ventricular septum is called a VSD. This hole lets blood with oxygen mix with used blood returning to the lungs. Over time irregular heartbeats and other heart problems.
- By age 1, most small VSDs close on their own. However, those VSDs that do stay open after this age may need to be closed.
- Larger VSDs, small ones in certain parts of the ventricular septum, or ones that cause heart failure or endocarditis (inflammation) need open-heart surgery. The hole in the septum is most often closed with a patch.
- Some septal defects can be closed without surgery. The procedure involves passing a small wire into the heart and placing a patch over the defect.